Hey everyone! This post is for those who would like to learn more about Past Perfect. If you have difficulties in memorizing some irregular verbs in the past participle, take a look at this list once in a while.
[ had + past participle ]
Aff: I had studied English before you came to Canada.
Q: Had she been married before she met John?
Neg: They had not finished their homework when the class started.
USE 1 Actions and states before a moment in the past
I’d had breakfast a few minutes before you called me.
USE 2 Finished actions and states where the important thing is the result at a moment in the past
We were happy because we’d all passed the test.
We often use the Past Perfect with these words and phrases:
* by – I’d finished my assignment by 10pm.
* by the time – By the time I got to work, the meeting had already started.
* before – The teacher had explained all the exercises before the students started their homework.
* after – I left after I’d finished the test.
* just – Julie had just finished the test when the bell rang.
* when – I left when I’d finished the test.
Whether we use simple past or past perfect can change the meaning of a sentence. The first action is always the one in Past Perfect:
The lesson started when I arrived. (I arrived and then the lesson started)
The lesson had started when I arrived. (The lesson started and then I arrived)
For more practice, click on the links below: