Prefixos e Sufixos

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Oi, pessoal!

Hoje a dica é sobre os prefixos e sufixos, para entender melhor o significado das palavras e tornar o aprendizado mais simples.

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Prefixo – é uma letra ou grupo de letras que aparece no início das palavras e muda completamente o sentido original dela.

Segue aqui uma lista dos principais prefixos:

PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
ante- before antenatal, anteroom, antedate
anti- against, opposing antibiotic, antidepressant, antidote
circum- around circumstance, circumvent, circumnavigate
co- with co-worker, co-pilot, co-operation
de- off, down, away from devalue, defrost, derail, demotivate
dis- opposite of, not disagree, disappear, disintegrate, disapprove
em-, en- cause to, put into embrace, encode, embed, enclose, engulf
epi- upon, close to, after epicentre, episcope, epidermis
ex- former, out of ex-president, ex-boyfriend, exterminate
extra- beyond, more than extracurricular, extraordinary, extra-terrestrial
fore- before forecast, forehead, foresee, foreword, foremost
homo- same homosexual, homonuclear, homoplastic
hyper- over, above hyperactive, hyperventilate
il-, im-, in-, ir- not impossible, illegal, irresponsible, indefinite
im-, in- into insert, import, inside
infra- beneath, below infrastructure, infrared, infrasonic, infraspecific
inter-, intra- between interact, intermediate, intergalactic, intranet
macro- large macroeconomics, macromolecule
micro- small microscope, microbiology, microfilm, microwave
mid- middle midfielder, midway, midsummer
mis- wrongly misinterpret, misfire, mistake, misunderstand
mono- one, singular monotone, monobrow, monolithic
non- not, without nonsense, nonentity, nondescript
omni- all, every omnibus, omnivore, omnipotent
para- beside parachute, paramedic, paradox
post- after post-mortem, postpone, post-natal
pre- before prefix, predetermine, pre-intermediate
re- again return, rediscover, reiterate, reunite
semi- half semicircle, semi-final, semiconscious
sub- under submerge, submarine, sub-category, subtitle
super- above, over superfood, superstar, supernatural, superimpose
therm- heat thermometer, thermostat, thermodynamic
trans- across, beyond transport, transnational, transatlantic
tri- three triangle, tripod, tricycle
un- not unfinished, unfriendly, undone, unknown
uni- one unicycle, universal, unilateral, unanimous

Sufixo – é uma letra ou grupo de letras normalmente adicionado ao final das palavras a fim de mudar seu sentido gramatical.

Na maioria dos casos, o sufixo pode te ajudar a definir se trata-se de um substantivo, adjetivo ou advérbio.

Por exemplo, o verbo read, pode se tornar um substantivo reader adicionando-se o sufixo -er ou um adjetivo readable adicionando-se o sufixo -able.

Confira agora a lista dos sufixos mais comuns:

SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLE
NOUN SUFFIXES
-acy state or quality democracy, accuracy, lunacy
-al the action or process of remedial, denial, trial, criminal
-ance, -ence state or quality of nuisance, ambience, tolerance
-dom place or state of being freedom, stardom, boredom
-er, -or person or object that does a specified action reader, creator, interpreter, inventor, collaborator, teacher
-ism doctrine, belief Judaism, scepticism, escapism
-ist person or object that does a specified action Geologist, protagonist, sexist, scientist, theorist, communist
-ity, -ty quality of extremity, validity, enormity
-ment condition enchantment, argument
-ness state of being heaviness, highness, sickness
-ship position held friendship, hardship, internship
-sion, -tion state of being position, promotion, cohesion
VERB SUFFIXES
-ate become mediate, collaborate, create
-en become sharpen, strengthen, loosen
-ify, -fy make or become justify, simplify, magnify, satisfy
-ise, -ize become publicise, synthesise, hypnotise
ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES
-able, -ible capable of being edible, fallible, incredible, audible
-al having the form or character of fiscal, thermal, herbal, colonial
-esque in a manner of or resembling picturesque, burlesque, grotesque
-ful notable for handful, playful, hopeful, skilful
-ic, -ical having the form or character of psychological, hypocritical, methodical, nonsensical, musical
-ious, -ous characterised by pious, jealous, religious, ridiculous
-ish having the quality of squeamish, sheepish, childish
-ive having the nature of inquisitive, informative, attentive
-less without meaningless, hopeless, homeless
-y characterised by dainty, beauty, airy, jealousy
ADVERB SUFFIXES
-ly related to or quality softly, slowly, happily, crazily, madly
-ward, -wards direction towards, afterwards, backwards, inward
-wise in relation to otherwise, likewise, clockwise

Para revisar, clique AQUI assista a um vídeo bem legal sobre os prefixos e sufixos.

 

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